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  • Gulmohar, Delonix Regia Plant
  • Gulmohar, Delonix Regia Plant

Gulmohar, Delonix Regia Plant

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Delonix regia, commonly known as the Flame Tree or Royal Poinciana, is a tropical tree renowned for its flamboyant display of vibrant red and orange flowers. Native to the dry deciduous forests of Madagascar, this tree has captivated the hearts of gardeners and nature enthusiasts around the world. Its striking beauty, coupled with its shade-providing canopy, makes it a popular choice for urban landscaping in tropical and subtropical regions.

Botanical Description

Delonix regia belongs to the family Fabaceae, which includes legumes. It is a deciduous tree that can grow up to 10-12 meters (33-39 feet) tall, with a broad, umbrella-like canopy that can spread as wide as the tree is tall. The leaves are bipinnate, meaning they are divided into smaller leaflets, giving them a feathery appearance. Each leaf can be up to 60 cm (24 inches) long and consists of 20 to 40 pairs of primary leaflets, each further divided into 10-20 pairs of secondary leaflets.

The tree's most striking feature is its flowers, which bloom in clusters and cover the entire tree in a riot of color during the flowering season. Each flower has five petals, about 8 cm (3 inches) long, with one petal often marked with white and yellow. The blooming period usually occurs in late spring to early summer, though this can vary based on the climate.

Cultivation and Care

Delonix regia thrives in well-drained soils with a neutral to slightly acidic pH. It prefers full sun and is highly tolerant of drought once established. However, it is sensitive to frost and cannot survive in temperatures below freezing for extended periods. In regions with distinct dry and wet seasons, the Flame Tree sheds its leaves during the dry season to conserve water, regrowing them when the rains return.

Propagation is typically achieved through seeds, which require scarification or soaking in hot water to break their dormancy. The seeds can then be planted in a sandy, well-draining mix and should germinate within a few weeks. Young trees need regular watering until they are well-established, after which they become more drought-tolerant.

Ecological and Cultural Significance

In its native Madagascar, Delonix regia is an important part of the ecosystem, providing habitat and food for various species. Its flowers are particularly attractive to pollinators such as bees and birds. However, outside its native range, the tree has become naturalized in many countries and is sometimes considered invasive due to its aggressive growth and ability to outcompete local flora.

Culturally, the Flame Tree holds a special place in many tropical countries. It is often planted along streets and in parks for its aesthetic appeal. In the Caribbean, it is sometimes referred to as the "Flamboyant Tree" and is associated with summer and festivity. In India, it is known as "Gulmohar" and is celebrated in poetry and art for its stunning beauty.

Challenges and Pests

Despite its many virtues, Delonix regia is not without its challenges. The tree’s expansive root system can be invasive, sometimes damaging sidewalks, roads, and building foundations. Additionally, it can be susceptible to certain pests and diseases, such as root rot, powdery mildew, and caterpillars that can defoliate the tree.


Delonix regia, with its brilliant flowers and graceful canopy, is a true spectacle of nature. While it requires specific growing conditions and mindful placement to avoid infrastructure damage, its benefits as an ornamental tree are undeniable. Whether admired in a botanical garden, lining a boulevard, or providing shade in a private yard, the Flame Tree continues to enchant and inspire all who behold its fiery display.

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